EXPANDED LUNCH PROGRAM HELPS MORE SCHOOLS
By Stateline.org, adapted by Newsela staff July 11, 2014
Students eat their lunch at Barre Town Elementary School in Barre Town, Vt. Photo: AP Photo/Toby Talbot WASHINGTON — This fall, a free lunch could be coming to thousands more students around the country, thanks to a 4- year-old federal program that is finally expanding to all 50 states. The expansion comes through the Community Eligibility Provision, passed by Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama in 2010. It was part of a broader school nutrition measure that opened the door for districts with free or reduced-price lunches to offer the meals to every student at the school. There is no cost to them — no application necessary and regardless of household income. The program has seen a slow state-by-state rollout since 2010. Certain schools in three states (Illinois, Kentucky and Michigan) were eligible first, based on need and their data-sharing capabilities. Last year, 4,000 more schools in 11 states participated. But all states will be covered starting this school year. Now the question facing district officials in newly eligible states is whether it makes financial — and political — sense to participate. Districts Are Giving It Some Thought Originally, districts had until the end of June to decide. The federal government extended the deadline into August to give districts more time, especially after some delays in publishing the list of schools or districts eligible. There’s no real-time tracking of how many new districts will participate this year, but state and local education officials are weighing it. In most states, hundreds of schools are eligible, according to a study by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. In areas where the program has been implemented, it’s been lauded by state and district officials, teachers and child nutrition advocates. They say it is a boon for the low-income school lunch program, which provided 21.5 million free or reduced-price meals in schools last year. That’s more than 70 percent of all meals served through the National School Lunch Program. “Everyone’s got a great meal that they can get at no charge. It just becomes the standard; it really unites the campus,” said Madeleine Levin of the Food Research and Action Center. “We’re wrapping our arms around these (schools) that need support just like we do in other educational programs.” Many Financial Considerations Under the community eligibility provision, the federal government pays for only a share of the expansion, leaving states to pay the balance. As a result, not all school districts are expected to participate. Schools where 40 percent or more of the students automatically qualify for the school lunch program are eligible to use community eligibility. There are more than 28,000 such schools nationwide. In schools where nearly all students are already receiving a free lunch, there will be little change in federal funding. That’s because the school is already being reimbursed for nearly all lunches served at the higher free-lunch federal rate. That can top $3 per meal, rather than the lower rate, which can be well below $1 per lunch. But if eligibility is closer to the 40 percent threshold, the school will have to make up the difference for a portion of the meals. In Fort Wayne, Indiana, for example, officials will offer the expanded lunch program at all elementary and middle schools starting this fall. But high schools there will have to wail. Lunch program participation at the high school level tends to be lower, and officials weren’t sure including them would make financial sense. The district had some elementary and middle schools that already had 95 percent or more of their students covered by the free-lunch program, said Krista Stockman, a spokeswoman for the district. At that point, “It really becomes easier to give everyone the free meals," she said. “It starts to become more of a hassle to have to deal with some students who are paying,” she added. “Overall, it just makes a much smoother process for our schools, our students and for our families.” Slow And Steady Participation High schools have always been more difficult when it comes to the free and reduced-price lunch program. There’s more shame about participating, officials and experts say. In some cases, families’ financial situations might improve as children grow and parents are freer to work, without paying the high cost of child care. That can reduce the number of students eligible for the program. Apart from the high school question, though, other districts have taken a timid approach. Indiana’s East Allen County Schools chose not to participate. Officials wanted to wait and see the effects in neighboring districts, district spokeswoman Tamyra Kelly said. In Chicago, officials have moved slowly: They started with 215 schools, expanded to 465, and will cover all 658 schools starting next school year. Leslie Fowler is the executive director of nutrition support services for Chicago schools. She said that to make the new program work, they had to be sure enough students would qualify under existing rules. They reached their set level of enrollment under older free lunch rules, 62.5 percent of all students in the district. This made sure the difference in payment rates from Washington didn’t cost the district revenue. “It doesn’t make sense to do district-wide if you don’t get to that threshold because at that point you’re probably losing revenue,” she said. St. Paul, Minnesota, is another district that is moving slowly. Jean Ronnei, the chief operations officer, said the district is doing a “test drive,” implementing the program at one high school, one middle school and a few elementary schools. “Not going full swoop will give us a chance to see more about what the impact will be,” she said. She said that there are some unrelated funds, like per-student aid from the state based on free-lunch enrollment levels, that are tied to paperwork. Without it, the funds could be more difficult to collect if no application is necessary for the free lunch program.